Ariana Guiomar-Córdova 1
Magdalena Bustos-Romano 1
Daniel Sánchez-Correa 1
1 Faculty of Science (Biology), University of Granada (UGR)
Sofía Antequera-Manzano 2
Beatriz Arellano-Romero 2
Samuel De la Torre-Galán 2
Carmen Gámez-Salazar 2
Clara Sofía GilOrtega-Barahona 2
Amanda Inés Hernández-García 2
Francisco José Villena-Rodríguez 2
2 Faculty of Translation and Interpreting, University of Granada (UGR)
This non-systematic review gathers data on neurological sequelae of COVID-19 patients aged 18 to 65 years. Scientific evidence shows that the main SARS-CoV-2 entry occurs through the ACE2 receptor, which is present in numerous cells of the organism. The virus penetrates the blood-brain barrier through vascular endothelial cells and immune cells; via the olfactory bulb and optic nerve channels; and across trans-synaptic transmission. In the central nervous system, the cytokine storm culminates in oxygen deprivation to neuronal cells. In the long term, this may lead to neurodegenerative diseases such as encephalopathy. Preliminary studies on treatment suggest a symptomatic approach proposing some pharmaceutical drugs such as adamantane. Therefore, some COVID-19 patients could experience cognitive sequelae, which could be related to the inflammation level produced by the infection.
Keywords: COVID-19, cognition, ACE2, spike protein, neuronal injury, neurological sequelae.